Resting heart rate – slower is better
As your heart gets more efficient and stronger – it can pump more blood with each stroke (and, potentially, require less energy to do that). Eventually, what this leads to is slower resting heart rate. Remember, the heart rate is a product of the demand for oxygenated blood and your heart’s ability to satisfy that demand. As this ability improves, the heart doesn’t need to beat as fast.
This is precisely where the benefit of exercise comes in. Exercise not only strengthens the heart itself and makes it more efficient in accessing oxygen in the blood (by growing more mitochondria) – but it also triggers the growth of new mitochondria (as well as improvement in oxidative capacity of existing mitochondria) at the periphery (i.e. – within the target tissue). All of that means that tissues in need of oxygen could now use less of it to satisfy the same demand for energy – which means your heart doesn’t need to beat as fast.
What benefits does slower heart rate have? There may be a couple:
- Slower heart rate means a bigger “buffer” between current and maximum heart rate to keep up with more demanding situations when the heart needs to beat faster. Remember – the maximum rate is a finite number for everyone – your heart can’t just beat faster and faster in response to the demand – because the heart itself needs oxygen from blood to perform the work. Faster heart rate means higher energy demand for the heart muscle itself – and at some point, the ability to fuel this process by oxygen delivered by the blood will be limited by the supply of that freshly oxygenated blood and the speed at which it is utilized within the aerobic metabolism pathways. No available energy at any given moment means no ability to contract. So a slower heart rate potentially means more energy-efficient heart and a higher capacity to increase that rate to address spontaneous demands for blood delivery;
- As we have already mentioned, muscle contraction requires energy – which comes from oxidation of fat, glucose or ketone bodies. Cellular energy metabolism – while being absolutely essential for life – also generates several chemical and electrical by-products that, in large amounts, can be harmful. For instance – we have already discussed positive hydrogen ions (H+) generated by muscle contraction that raise the acidity of the cell. Also, cellular metabolism generates reactive oxygen species that are known to inflict damage to cell’s DNA and cause various disorders. It follows, then, that less energy required for resting heart rate means less of such by-products – which, by the way, may contribute to the wear and tear and, as a result – the longevity of the heart itself. Perhaps it is no coincidence that animals with generally slower heart rates live longer?
Let’s revisit health benefits of ketogenic diet.
In Part I and Part II you learned how effective ketogenic diet can be in shedding extra body fat and making you perform better – both mentally and physically. You have also learned that although it does not make you hungry like some calorie-restricted diets do, strict ketosis is, nevertheless, difficult to maintain because it eliminates some of your most favorite foods and leaves a limited number of ingredients that you can safely consume without shutting down ketogenesis.
So why would you subject yourself to this seemingly restrictive practice if you do not need to lose weight?
The answer is – because ketosis has several profound therapeutic benefits.
(Continued from Part I)
Ketogenic diet and weight loss
One of the primary benefits of ketogenic diet – and also the one that is easy to track – is improved body composition. Once again, we are not interested in total “weight loss” per se – what we are interested in is reducing body fat, while maintaining lean muscle mass. Both have profoundly positive effects on health, longevity and quality of life.
Why is ketogenic diet so effective for getting rid of body fat? Why is it more effective than, say, “low-fat” or “low-calorie” diets, popularized and promoted in the last several decades and still prevailing in the minds of most dieters?
The dogmatic belief that “eating fat will make you fat” is very far from truth. Not only restricting fat is not the preferred method of weight control (because fats maintain the integrity of your cells, serve as precursors to important hormones – including testosterone, which accelerated lean muscle synthesis and fat burn – and because restricting fats almost inevitably means increasing carbs if you don’t want to starve), but also – restricting fat does not prevent the dreaded cardiovascular disease (because quality fat rarely causes one to begin with) – quite the contrary.
What is a ketogenic diet?
If you regularly follow articles on health and nutrition, you have undoubtedly heard about ketosis. In the last several years, the interest around ketogenic diets has been rising constantly, with more and more studies done and data available to critically assess their effectiveness.
When people hear the word “diet”, the first objective they associate it with is losing weight. But ketogenic diets are more than just methods of weight-control. They have profound therapeutic effects on certain medical conditions and, generally, represent an evolutionary advantage that has allowed our species to survive and thrive.
Unfortunately, with typical dietary choices of today – driven largely by clever marketing messages and hidden agendas of large food corporations trying to convince you that eating their stuff is the best thing you can do and you should really ignore any potential health implications – ketosis has become a forgotten skill.